Log in What is Expectancy Theory? The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations. Expectancy Theory expectations There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, The reward will satisfy an important need, The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.
Education model[ edit ] History and model overview[ edit ] John William Atkinson developed the expectancy-value theory in the s and s in an effort to understand the achievement motivation of individuals. Expectancies refer to how confident an individual is in his or her ability to succeed in a task whereas task values refer to how important, useful, or enjoyable the individual perceives the task.
Theoretical  and empirical;   work suggests that expectancies and values interact to predict important outcomes such as engagement, continuing interest, and academic achievement. This model has most widely been applied and used in research in the field of education.
Expectancies[ edit ] Expectancies are specific beliefs individuals have regarding their success on certain tasks they will carry out in the short-term future or long-term future.
For example, a high school student might believe that they really struggle on standardized tests. This leads them to expect that they will perform poorly on the SAT. These beliefs then impact their actual performance on the SAT. These expectancies are tied to concepts such as self-concept and self-efficacy.
Traditionally, attainment value and intrinsic value are more highly correlated. Developmental trajectories[ edit ] Researchers have found that expectancies and values can be distinguished as separate types of motivation as early as 6 years old.
In fact, children as young as 11 years old have demonstrated that they can differentiate between academic domains. As students reach higher grades, the focus shifts from learning to achievement.
In fact, a large body of research exists showing that shifts from learning to performance as an educational focus can be detrimental to student motivation.
These interventions are able to increase expectancy  and value  or decrease cost. According to the expectancy-value theory, this intervention is effective because it increases students interest in the material.
Originally the work of psychologist Martin Fishbein [ citation needed ], the theory states that attitudes are developed and modified based on assessments about beliefs and values. Primarily, the theory attempts to determine the mental calculations that take place in attitude development.
Expectancy-value theory has been used to develop other theories and is still utilized today in numerous fields of study. History[ edit ] Dr. Martin Fishbein is credited with developing the expectancy-value theory EVT in the early to mids. An Introduction to Theory and Research.
RosenbergEdward Tolman, and John B.
Concepts[ edit ] EVT has three basic components. First, individuals respond to novel information about an item or action by developing a belief about the item or action. If a belief already exists, it can and most likely will be modified by new information.
Second, individuals assign a value to each attribute that a belief is based on. Third, an expectation is created or modified based on the result of a calculation based on beliefs and values.
For example, a student finds out that a professor has a reputation for being humorous. The student assigns a positive value to humor in the classroom, so the student has the expectation that their experience with the professor will be positive.
When the student attends class and finds the professor humorous, the student calculates that it is a good class.Motivation: Motivation, forces acting either on or within a person to initiate behaviour.
The word is derived from the Latin term motivus (“a moving cause”), which suggests the activating properties of the processes involved in psychological motivation. Psychologists study motivational forces to help explain.
Overview. At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don't want.
The Expectancy theory states that employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality).
Expectancy theory in comparison to the other motivation theories. There is a useful link between Vroom's expectancy theory and Adam's Equity theory of motivation: namely that people will also compare outcomes for themselves with others. The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of Management in Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not on needs unlike Maslow and Herzberg.
The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an. The Expectancy Theory of motivation as developed by Victor Vroom is a process theory of motivation and it finds an important place in the literature of motivational theories.
The Expectancy Theory looks.