Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like?
Fostering Research Integration Myles S. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide and it is associated with concerning medical comorbidities, most notably the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes [ 1 - 4 ].
Hence, innovative research that elucidates the causes of obesity has become an increasingly important focus for the National Institutes of Health.
Genes operate additively and through gene-gene interactions to influence body weight [ 5 ]. The topic of genetic and social environmental influences on obesity, and how they interact, is a unique topic for which conceptual frameworks are scarce.
Research into the genetics of human obesity has become increasingly sophisticated with respect to molecular technologies, biostatistics, and efficient design strategies; however, as illustrated in this report, these studies generally did not measure specific aspects of the social environment.
Hence, there appears to be room for greater scientific synergy between the domains. There are two overarching aims to the present report: The report strives to foster ideas for new research that bridge genetic and social-environmental research, as they relate to obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors.
Conceptual frameworks that posit potential interactions or covariation among genetic and social environmental factors are proposed. The model posits that genetic and social-environmental factors promote obesity through their independent influences on intermediary behavioral variables.
These intermediary phenotypes may induce a positive energy balance i. Although physiological variables are not depicted in the model, they clearly are central to energy balance regulation and the putative behavior phenotypes listed in the figure.
The model is intended to reflect much of the current literature, in that correlations or interactions among the social environment and genetic factors are not explicitly posited. However, as reviewed in this report, certain studies challenge this assumption and suggest that expansions of this model may help guide future research.
The final section of this report suggests additional research that would test interactions and correlations among genetic and social-environmental variables.
In this figure, the effects of genetic and social-environmental factors, respectively, are posited to operate through putative behavioral phenotypes that promote positive energy more The following section of the report, Section 3addresses putative social-environmental influences on obesity-promoting behaviors and obesity, corresponding to pathways b and c in Figure C Section 5 addresses putative genetic influences on obesity-promoting behaviors and obesity, corresponding to pathways a and c in the figure.
Section 6 addresses evidence for potential interactions among genetic, social, environmental, and behavioral influences on obesity. The data presented in this section challenge the premise that genetic and environmental factors do not interact or cannot influence each other. Section 7 suggests additional research questions and designs that might test new questions concerning the interplay between genes, social environment, behavior, and obesity.
Given the range of topics covered in this report, a table of contents for the major report sections and subsections is provided for the reader Table C Components of the social environment include built infrastructure; industrial and occupational structure; labor markets; social and economic processes; wealth; social, human, and health services; power relations; government; race relations; social inequality; cultural practices; the arts; religious institutions and practices; and beliefs about place and community.
The social-environmental variables reviewed below are not necessarily independent of each other, but are presented individually for ease of presentation. These particular factors are reviewed because there is a reasonable database providing information on these variables and because of their potential relevance for obesity prevention.
Brownell argues that these changes have caused the rising obesity prevalence, even though strong causal inferences cannot be easily made from these observational trends. Data have been published that are consistent with the notion that some of these changes may have contributed to the rising obesity prevalence.
As reviewed elsewhere [ 13 ], for example, data on national food supply and utilization from the U. Marketing System indicate that the overall energy availability per capita in the United States increased by 15 percent between anda period during which there was also an increase in per capita availability of dietary fat, increased consumption of added fats commonly found in snack or confectionary foodsreduced milk intake, and increased soft-drink intake.
During this period, there was an increased number of households with two or more television sets, home video recorders, and home computers. Despite these findings, several caveats are warranted. First, although these aforementioned findings are consistent with a causal influence i. Much of the evidence comes from observational studies that could not control for potential confounding factors or did not directly test associations between participant weight status and exposure to putative environmental risk factors.
Third, findings from certain studies did not support expected predictions. For example, in a cohort of over 7, children who were 36 to 59 months of age and from low-income families, child obesity status was not associated with access to playgrounds, proximity to fast-food restaurants, or neighborhood crime level [ 14 ].
Finally, it has not been tested whether exposure to the toxic environment is related to genotype.The proposed model unpacks societal culture's multi-level influence on friction in the employee–organization relationship (EOR), resolving two knowledge gaps: overreliance in EOR research on employee-centered concepts, ignoring the influence of the organization; and minimal theoretical analysis on why societal culture contributes to relational problems between the organization and its.
Literature, Arts, and the Humanities. WGU IWC1. STUDY. PLAY. nature of the mind and its relationship to the body. Mode of study. Romanesque art and architecture also reflected Eastern and Byzantine influences.
The period noted largely for its architecture, although there were also distinctive Romanesque sculpture, fresco painting. The fundamental objective is to uncover how societal influences impede or cater to literary formulae by evaluating observations made by systems theorists and applying their methodologies to a literary discussion.
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Literature Review. 8 Women in Film. influences the choice of career among secondary school students.
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