Pmr essay

Rutherford model The nucleus was discovered inas a result of Ernest Rutherford 's efforts to test Thomson's " plum pudding model " of the atom. Knowing that atoms are electrically neutral, Thomson postulated that there must be a positive charge as well. In his plum pudding model, Thomson suggested that an atom consisted of negative electrons randomly scattered within a sphere of positive charge.

Pmr essay

Outlook Temporal arteritis, now known as giant cell arteritis, is a form of vasculitis, or blood vessel inflammation. It involves a swelling and thickening of the lining of the artery under the skin Pmr essay the temple, or side of the head.

It is an auto-immune condition that happens because of a faulty immune system reaction, when the immune system attacks healthy cells by mistake. It is now called giant cell arteritis GCA because research has shown that it can affect not only the temporal arteries.

Other blood vessels that can develop GCA include the thoracic aorta and its branches, in the head and neck. The term "giant cell" is used because biopsies of inflamed temporal arteries, seen under a microscope, show enlarged cells.

GCA has been known since at least the 10th Pmr essay. Other names include cranial arteritis and Horton disease. Symptoms include a persistent headache. Without treatment, it can lead to permanent vision loss. GCA is most common after the age of 50 years.

The chances of developing it increase with age. It affects around 18 people in every ,00 each year, and it is most likely to occur when a person is in their 80s. It is two or three times more likely to affect women than men. Symptoms A persistent headache and visual disturbances can be symptoms of temporal arteritis.

The main symptom is a severe, persistent, and possibly throbbing headache, usually on the side or at the front of the head.

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Two in every three people with this condition will have a headache. Anyone who experiences these symptoms should see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Pmr essay

If vision problems occur, immediate medical help is needed. Complications The most serious possible complication is loss of vision, which can occur suddenly and be permanent. It can happen if the vasculitis affects an artery that supplies an eye, causing damage to the optic nerve.

Signs of visual disturbances include: Vision loss affects between 14 and 20 percent of people with GCA. Before the introduction of corticosteroids, the rate was 30 to 60 percent.

If treatment for GCA is started before any effect on vision, the risk of blindness happening later is reduced to 1 percent or lower. Fifty-eight percent experience visual improvements if treatment is started within 24 hours Six percent experience improvements if treatment starts "after a delay.

Visual loss affects the other eye within days to weeks in 50 percent of people with a diagnosis of GCA. Other complications, such as excessive swelling of the arteries, are less common. However, GCA has also been linked with a higher risk of a heart attackstrokeor aortic aneurysm. Diagnosis It is important to see a doctor with any symptoms that could indicate GCA.

A doctor will consider the symptoms the patient describes, ask questions, and explore other possibilities. They will also do a physical examination.

If GCA is a possibility, treatment should start right away. Tests that may be used to diagnose this condition include: Causes GCA affects the arteries that supply the head and the brain with blood.

GCA affects the temporal arteries and it can develop in the thoracic artery, too. There is one temporal artery on each side of the head. Each one runs over the part of the skull that is above and around the ear.

The two arteries themselves run up in front of the ear. They branch off from the two main blood supplies to the head from the heart.Edzard Ernst (born 30 January ) is an academic physician and researcher specializing in the study of complementary and alternative was formerly Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, the first such academic position in the world..

Ernst served as chairman of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) at the University of Vienna, but left this position. pmr essay english essay pmr english essay informal letter format pmr essay sample entitled a school. english essay informal letter format pmr best informal letter format english new formal letter sample to a friend.

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Pmr essay

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Penilaian Menengah Rendah (commonly abbreviated as PMR; Malay for Lower Secondary Assessment) was a Malaysian public examination taken by all Form Three students in both government and private schools throughout the country from independence in to Eating a varied, healthful diet is particularly important for people with PMR, as many unhealthful foods can make symptoms worse.

Following a PMR-friendly diet may reduce symptoms and might also. SPM SAMPLE OF ESSAYS - DIRECTED WRITING DIRECTED WRITING: 35 MARKS. DIRECTED: ARTICLE: Factual. You are concerned over the implications and long-term health effects of the haze.

Write an article to the local newspaper expressing your concern based on all the notes below.

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