Sexual Orientation Despite the parallels, it should be recognized that important differences also exist between race and sexual orientation as minority group statuses.
With base pair comparisons possible across the individuals sequenced, the estimate that any two humans are Paradoxically, the evidence of vast numbers of DNA base pairs at which humans differ also became known at this time.
It is estimated currently that any two people will differ at approximately 3 million positions along their genomes. Previous chapters have discussed the contributions of the social environment, behavior, psychological factors, physiological mechanisms, and genetic variation to health.
These complex traits are multifaceted, and the goal is to tease apart the facets at different levels of organization in order to identify which of them directly modulate health.
Failing to distinguish these different facets, both in the aggregate and within each level of analysis, will compromise the ability to obtain a more fine-grained understanding of how the different aspects of these fundamental individual traits interact to influence health.
Sex is a classification based on biological differences—for example, differences between males and females rooted in their anatomy or physiology. By contrast, gender is a classification based on the social construction and Race and sexuality of cultural distinctions between males and females.
Differences in the health of males and females often reflect the simultaneous influence of both sex and gender.
Not only can gender relations influence the expression of biological traits, but also sex-associated biological characteristics can contribute to amplify gender differentials in health Krieger, The relative contributions of gender relations and sex-linked biology to health differences between males and females depend on the specific health outcome under consideration.
In other instances, gender relations account substantially for observed gender differentials for a given health outcome—for example the higher prevalence of needle-stick injuries among female compared to male health care workers, which is in turn attributed to the gender segregation of the health care workforce.
The prevalence of HIV infection through needle-stick injury is higher among female health care workers because the majority of doctors are men, the majority of nurses and phlebotomists are women, and drawing blood is relegated to nurses and phlebotomists who are mostly women Ippolito et al.
In yet other instances, gender relations can act synergistically with sex-linked biology to produce a health outcome. For example, the risk of hypospadias is higher among male infants born to women exposed to potential endocrine-disrupting agents at work.
In this example, maternal exposure to the endocrine-disrupting agent e. Once exposure occurs, the risk of the outcome is predicated on sex-linked biology and is different for women and men, as well as for female and male fetuses, because only women can be pregnant, and exposure can lead to the outcome hypospadias only among male fetuses all examples cited in Krieger, Finally, in some instances, sex-linked biology can be obscured by the influence of gender relations in producing health differentials between women and men.
Arber and colleagues demonstrated the presence of such bias in a randomized experimental study involving video-vignettes of a scripted consultation in which patients presented with standardized symptoms of CHD.
Women were asked fewer questions and received fewer diagnostic tests compared to men. Besides the behavior of health care providers, a number of other social processes are recognized as contributing to gender inequalities in health.
At the macro or societal level, these include the gender segregation of the labor force alluded to above and gender discrimination. Gender segregation of the workforce and gender discrimination together contribute to the persistence of the gender wage gap—that is the fact that women earn less than men in paid employment Reskin and Padavic, The gender wage gap in turn contributes to the feminization of poverty.
Women— particularly female heads of households—are over-represented among poor households in virtually every society. The adverse health effects of poverty see Chapter 2 of this report therefore fall disproportionately on women and their children. Within households, gender relations also are characterized by the unequal division of labor e.
The stresses associated with care giving, particularly providing care for ill spouses, have been linked to adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease Lee et al. Men and women differ biologically because their primary reproductive hormones are different.
Less well recognized are the sex differences in certain aspects of immune function that stem from the fact that women and men face different immune challenges.
Moreover, as is the case for many other mammalian species, other aspects of male and female biology also may differ because they have different roles in caring for offspring or function in different ecological niches, thus reducing parental competition.
For example, a brief stressor mimicking a burrow collapse results in a more pronounced long-term innate inflammatory response in female rats than in male rats exposed to the same stressor Hermes et al. Given that females become aggressive during lactation and may likely suffer from wounding, selection would favor those who can mount an inflammatory response that is effective enough to enable them to survive at least long enough to wean their nursing pups.Jun 06, · The connections between race and sexuality are constant in our lives, yet they are not often linked together in productive, analytical ways.
This illuminating book delves into the interrelation of race and sexuality as inseparable elements of our identities and social benjaminpohle.com: Paperback.
Jun 06, · The connections between race and sexuality are constant in our lives, yet they are not often linked together in productive, analytical ways. This illuminating book delves into the interrelation of race and sexuality as inseparable elements of our identities and social benjaminpohle.com: Hardcover.
The authors examine 2, personal ads from male advertisers collected from the Internet, focusing on issues of race and sexual orientation. They look at advertisers' desire for a partner of a particular race and the effect of their race .
Race and sexual orientation each constitute a master status. Once known, the fact that a person is a homosexual or a member of a racial minority group is regarded by members of the majority group (heterosexuals, Whites) as one of the most important pieces of information about her or him.
Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality addresses these questions, exploring the intimate intersections and forbidden frontiers where ethnicity and sexuality meet face-to-face.
Through numerous examples from the U.S. and beyond-and from the past and the present-the book illustrates the power of sex to shape ideas and feelings about race, /5(6). This pathway illuminates the interrelated historical development of race, gender, and sexuality as powerful axes of social difference that have structured social hierarchy and inequality, from regimes of slavery and apartheid to legal and cultural criteria for immigration, employment, inheritance, and citizenship.