S-Bahn every 20 minutes, almost 24 hours. Sturdy walking boots or trail shoes are a must, both for Alpine tracks and old town sightseeing, as well as a waterproof outer layer when the rain falls.
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Germany—Politics and government—20th century. I am Single stammtisch rottweil grateful to the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation of Bonn, West Germany, and, in particular, to its Klaus Epstein Memorial Fund, which enabled me to undertake the research for this book in Germany during I should also like to thank the staffs of all the archives I visited in the Federal Republic for their assistance and for their permission to quote from materials in their custody.
The Hoover Institution and its Western Collection's curator, Agnes Peterson, deserve recognition for the kind Single stammtisch rottweil they provided me in the form of a travel grant as well as for their permission to reproduce the photographs contained in this book.
Martin Blinkhorn, the editor of European History Quarterly, was kind enough to permit me to draw upon material originally published in that journal. Special thanks also go to Gerd Keim, the grandson of the Army League's founder, August Keim, for allowing me access to his grandfather's small collection and for sharing with me more personal recollections of his family.
In no way, of course, should they be held accountable for the views expressed in this book.
I am indebted to William Becker of George Washington University, not only for the grant he secured for me from the university to cover the expenses of typing the manuscript, but also for his friendship and assistance in ways only he knows. Thanks go as well to Jean Moser for her diligence in typing the manuscript.
I also owe a special debt to Paul Kennedy of Yale University who offered his support in a variety of ways. My mentor and friend James Sheehan of Stanford University has served as a model of inspiration since my undergraduate days at Northwestern University.
I hope this first book meets his standards.
Above all, Nancy Lane has been a model editor who deserves the highest praise. I offer this book to my parents with gratitude for all their time and effort in supporting my development as a historian. Without their constant financial and moral backing and the intense love of learning that they instilled in me, this book could not have been written.
I hope they realize how much 1 appreciate everything they have done.
Last, but certainly not least, my husband and fellow historian, Frans, read and breathed every word and version of the Army League from its inception until its appearance as this book, and offered encouragement and love.
For the years he was forced to share the stage with those confounded popular nationalists, I apologize, and hope that future books will be less demanding. Contents Introduction, 3 1.
The Founding of the Army League, 14 2. The Politics of Military Despair, 30 3. The Army League in the Liberal Southwest, 62 5. While this study of the Army League explores the rising tide of German militarism before the First World War, it also confronts the equally significant issue of popular political mobilization in the Wilhelmine age.
As an extraparliamentary pressure group designed to strengthen the German army and along with it the patriotic fabric of the nation, the Army League competed with the spectrum of preexisting political parties, in particular the National Liberals, for the affection and support of the German public in safeguarding the state from internal subversion by Socialists, pacifists, and Left Liberalsin sharpening its citizens' political and national consciousness, and in expanding the nation's ability to compete with and eventually surpass its European rivals in the realm of foreign politics.
The Army League was the last of the patriotic societies to emerge after the mids and develop a highly confrontational critique of Wilhelmine governmental policies on issues of both domestic and foreign significance.
Associations, of course, were by no means solely a late nineteenth-century phenomenon. In the late eighteenth century, literary and social clubs provided models for the gymnastic, choral, and cultural societies that emerged during the Restoration era in such rapid succession that one prominent historian has labeled the s the "age of associations.
In a way, voluntary associations served as surrogates for the old guild system; they fostered a sense of community and catered to their members' needs in much the same fashion as had the guilds, but without the stigmas of exclusivity and resistance to change.
Prohibited by the state from establishing their own political network, liberals sought refuge in a spectrum of nonpolitical associations that functioned as "training schools" in which "the first generation of liberal leaders learned to think and act politically.
They were established not in opposition to the state and its policies, but in a "compensatory and complementary relation to it," for "only with the cooperation of the state was the dissolution of the old feudal bonds achieved.
The state was not the opponent but the inaugurator of bourgeois society; it was an agent of freedom. After many urban areas witnessed a revitalization of their associational networks; in Munich alone the number of associations increased nearly twentyfold between andfrom some to approximately 3, For example, Knappenvereine miners' associations and Kolpings-Gesellenvereine journeymen's associationswhich catered to workers seeking diversions from the tedium of industrial employment and the anonymity of urban life, specifically offered activities "designed to be carried out on Sundays and weekday evenings, the available free time of the urban laborer.
Demographic growth ensured a continuing supply of potential members, while the extension of the railways, the postal service, and the popular press all facilitated the formation and maintenance of organizational contacts. Moreover, the gradual reduction of the average workweek and the corresponding increase in leisure time also contributed to the continuing vitality of associational life in Imperial Germany.
During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, a new genre of associations emerged, the patriotic societies or Nationale Verbdnde. Although shaped to some extent by the associational traditions of the past, they nonetheless represented a distinctive departure in German public life. In terms of their sheer size, national breadth and exposure, social heterogeneity, and predilection to criticize the state, the patriotic societies differed from their predecessors.
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THE GERMAN ARMY LEAGUE This page intentionally left blank THE GERMAN ARMY LEAGUE Popular Nationalism in Wilhelmine Germany MARILYN SHEVIN COETZEE.
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