Neighborhood SES has sometimes been used as a proxy for individual SES as addresses are linked to geocoded census tracts and census variables. Some argue that this may be a practical and population-based approach for monitoring disparities and allocating resources to address disparities. Perceived SES or subjective social status assesses how individuals perceive their relative position in the social hierarchy. In addition, it is argued that perception guides behavior, and subjective social status is a new type of identity that influences health.
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Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is any relationship between socioeconomic factors and mental depression, specifically in connection with family income and education.
Our empirical model was estimated using the database of three National Household Sampling Surveys, and and their special supplements on the health status of the Brazilian population.
Analyses for men and women were conducted separately. Family income proved to be a protective factor against depression for both men and women. With regard to the effects of education, the estimates indicate that the maximum risk of depression occurs when women have approximately four years of schooling and men have about eight.
Above these levels, the risk decreases as schooling years increase. Introduction The quantity and quality of human capital stock are key to economic growth in a country [ 1 ] and others.
This factor depends, in turn, on the education and life expectancy of individuals directly affected by health conditions.
In terms of health, there is increasing concern about the quality of mental health. Among the many mental disorders that an individual can develop in his or her life cycle, depression has gained prominence, especially in recent years.
According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from depression [ 2 ]. This type of chronic mental disorder causes severe damage to patients, their families, and also the country.
According to results by Ettner et al. Moreover, the social cost of depression is significantly high [ 29 — 13 ]. The costs associated with depression and loss of well-being make it pertinent that economists remain attentive to this issue.
We believe that using an economic approach, it is possible to cooperate with other fields already involved and engaged in research of causes behind mental depression. In Brazil, the prevalence rate of mental depression hereinafter depression has been declining over the years.
However, according to data from the Special Supplements on Health Research of the National Household Sampling Survey in, andit is still high and worrying. In the study conducted in4. For reasons still obscure in the health literature, the prevalence rate of depression is much higher among women than among men.
Init was seen that 2. Several researchers have been working to identify and understand the causes of depression. However, still little is known about its determinants, particularly about those related to socioeconomic conditions of an individual and family.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to advance this investigation, with emphasis on the alleged effects of family income and education on depression risk.
Specifically, this study seeks empirical advances in the modelling of socioeconomic determinants of mental depression proposed in Santos and Kassouf [ 18 ]. After this introduction, in Section 2we present the methodological procedures.
Section 3 contains some conditional descriptive analyses of sample data used in the estimates of empirical models, which are presented and discussed in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 concludes the study. Data and Sample The dataset that we used was formed from three National Household Sampling Surveys, and and their special supplements on the health status of the Brazilian population, whose weights make them representative of the population from which it was drawn.
To make the sample suitable for empirical modelling were excluded: Moreover, some observations were lost in the estimates due to missing observations in some variables.
The database that was used offers at least five advantages over those used in most studies: Concerning explanatory variables, the main problem is that some of them are potentially endogenous with respect to depression, such as education, income, and physical diseases.
To avoid this possibility, the following strategy was adopted: This is one of two strategies used here, and it will serve only as a starting point for modelling and checking the robustness of the estimates. Personal income is certainly endogenous, mainly because the disease can lead to a lower income.
The average family income can in turn also drop when at least one family member is sick.Health Disparities | SAMHSA - Substance Abuse and Mental Overview. Reduce Health Disparities Area A and City of Houston. HOUSTON DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 3 July 16, Socioeconomic Conditions and Access Summary to Care COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILE HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY AREA A.
HOUSTON DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Researchers concluded that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in inadequate hydration among U.S. adults are related to differences in tap water and other beverage intake, and that policy.
A capability approach to the social determinants of health thus recognises the importance of addressing health needs on multiple fronts, in multiple domains of policy that affect all determinants of health (not just socioeconomic inequalities). Although racial disparities in health have been documented both historically and in more contemporary contexts, the frameworks used to explain these patterns have varied, ranging from earlier theories regarding innate racial differences in biological vulnerability, to more recent theories focusing on the impact of social inequalities.
Health equity among the diverse adolescent population will be difficult to achieve if racial and ethnic disparities are not addressed. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
As listed all race categories, except for Hispanic and multiracial, exclude Hispanics/Latinos.